Posts Tagged With: butter

Program 44: Playing with our Food…

Okay. Sometimes, my G3 programs come together in very interesting ways. My idea for this program started with a beautiful banana. As some of you may recall, I’m a big banana fan – they are just so darn interesting! And then it grew from there. There are so many fun science projects and demonstrations you can do with food that I just couldn’t help myself. So for our first G3 program this Fall, I had our G3 scientists take on the following:

  1. We investigated to see if TOTAL brand cereal uses real iron in its cereal flakes. [“Eating Nails for Breakfast”]
  2. For fun, I challenged the scientists to pull a table cloth out from under a full table setting…and explain to me the science behind the results [“Tablecloth Trick”]
  3. I had the scientists work hard for their afternoon snack by making their own butter.
  4. I demonstrated how the magical banana can actually form the base for a very delicious “ice cream” treat.
  5. Finally, I let our scientists combine their love of science with their creative sides by tattooing bananas with fun images and talking about how the heck that’s even possible!

EXPERIMENT #1:  “Eating Nails for Breakfast” [from Steve Spangler]

Materials:

  • TOTAL brand cereal [enough so that each scientist can have a sandwich bag filled about 1/3 of the way up – for my group of 22 or so scientists, I used 1-2 full-sized boxes of cereal. I chose to pre-fill baggies with the cereal]
  • Water for each scientist [I just distributed a standard water bottle to each scientist, though they only used a small portion of the bottle]
  • Sandwich bags that zip closed [2 per scientist]
  • Strong magnets [I actually own a nice neodymium magnet that I picked up from the Steve Spangler store…and that worked best for us as a group. But I have seen the experiment work with bar magnets, and according to its packaging, my cow magnet should also have worked well. If you have enough magnets to distribute around, all the better. I passed my one neodymium magnet around from table to table…]

The trick with this experiment is that it actually takes some time to complete it and get to the results phase. So I started our program hour with Part One of this project, and we returned to it before the scientists had to go home at the end of the program hour.

home_box_newAfter explaining to the group that we were going to try and verify that Total cereal adds actual iron to its cereal flakes, I distributed the pre-filled baggies of Total cereal to each scientist and asked them to seal up the bag (getting as much air out of the bag as possible) and smash the cereal into small pieces/crumbs. As you can imagine, my crew had a LOT of fun pounding their cereal into smithereens. After a few minutes, I asked each scientist to pour their cereal crumbs into a second, empty baggie and then fill the bag about 1/3-1/2 up with water. [I discovered during my own early testing that the process of crushing the cereal flakes created some small holes/tears in the original baggie…which of course made for quite a mess when I added water to the bag. My simple solution was to have every scientist start with a fresh bag before we added the water.] Once the water was added, it was time to set this project aside for at least 30 minutes. Truthfully, you might have luck returning sooner than that, but it’s better to be safe than sorry!

nails_breakfastWhen we came back to this experiment at the end of the hour, the next steps were very simple in deed. I asked each scientist to shake their bag of water-logged cereal flakes…which essentially breaks up the flakes even further so you get something that looks rather like a cereal slurry. If any of the scientists seemed to have a little too much air in their bag, I helped them to carefully get some of that extra air out and then reseal the bag. Each scientist then laid their bag of slurry flat on the table surface and everyone took turns pressing the neodymium magnet directly onto their bag. When you do that, the magnet pulls literal iron filings up from the slurry to the surface of the bag. You can even drag them around the top of the bag with the magnet’s help! Our scientists (and their parents!) were amazed to find actual iron in a breakfast cereal!

In the video below, Steve Spangler does a great job of explaining the experiment itself. In the 2015 National Geographic Kids book, Edible Science, there’s also a wonderful description of the same experiment (pg. 18) along with an explanation for why the heck manufacturers put iron in our cereal:

Iron is naturally found in meat and some vegetables. In those foods, the iron exists as one part of a large molecule, such as hemoglobin. However, the easiest way for a food manufacturer to increase the iron content of a product is to add pure, metallic iron. Many cereal makers grind iron into metal dust and mix it into the batter for their flakes… (pg. 18)

DEMONSTRATION #1: “The Tablecloth Trick[From Steve Spangler]

Materials:

  • I used an actual Tablecloth Trick demonstration pack from Steve Spangler that included the special tablecloth and a full table setting (plastic plate, plastic bowl, plastic cup, fork, knife, and spoon)

table-experimentHonestly, I did this demonstration because I knew the kids would have fun with this challenge. This was one of my take-homes from my Steve Spangler conference in July 🙂 I simply challenged my scientists to pull the tablecloth out from under the full table setting. I demonstrated first, and then without giving any tips or instructions, I asked the scientists to line up next to the table where I had set up the tablecloth and give it their best shots…with a promise that we would talk about the “science” behind the demonstration after they had all had a turn.

If you go to the first link above, Steve Spangler’s web site does a great job explaining how to best set up the demonstration…and what the science behind the trick actually is. Basically, you need to:

  • Spread the tablecloth out onto a flat tabletop with about 2 feet of the tablecloth on the table. Make sure there are no wrinkles.
  • Place the cups, plates and utensils on top of the tablecloth relatively close to the edge of the cloth (increases the chance of success for beginners).
  • The trick is to grab the ends of the tablecloth with both hands and quickly pull the cloth straight down and away from the table. The key is the quick, downward motion – almost like you’re whipping or yanking the cloth away. Keep saying to yourself, “Pull down… not out.” Make sure to pull perpendicular to the table and not at an inclined angle.

Amazingly, I think all but 1 of my 22 scientists were able to successfully do this trick in the first go! What is the science involved in this trick? Inertia and Friction. According to Sir Isaac Newton’s Law of Motion: 1) an object will remain at rest until a force acts on it, and 2) an object in motion will remain in motion unless a force acts on it. Thus, our full table setting (plates and silverware) will remain in place (at rest) unless a significant force acts on them. Where does the Friction come into play? Well, initially, all of the objects (the plate, bowl, cup, utensils) are at rest (not moving). When you pull the cloth, friction acts on the objects in the direction of the pull for a short time. But the tablecloth (with no hem or edging) is slippery, so these forces are small and the cloth sneaks out from underneath the objects.

EXPERIMENT #2: Snack Time…Let’s Make Butter!

Materials

  • Heavy whipping cream (room temperature – out of the fridge for 6-8 hours)
  • Small containers with secure lids (In the past I used recycled 4 oz. baby food jars, one for each scientist. This time I used small mini cups…and they worked SO much better!)
  • A little salt for flavoring
  • Bread, for snacking
  • Plates to put the snack on 🙂

Even having done this before with a different group of scientists, I’m still amazed at how easy this is…and how satisfying. There’s something really nifty about letting my scientists make something that they can instantly use (or consume). I passed out the mini cups, which had about 1/4 to 1/2 inch of heavy cream in the bottom. [This small amount of cream produces plenty of butter for each individual scientist, approximately 1-2 servings.] I instructed my scientists to add a pinch of salt for flavoring if they wanted (most of us eat salted butter at the dinner table). We sealed the cups tight, and then it was just a question of some time and arm muscle. You need to shake the cream in the container for about 10 minutes to instigate the physical change in the cream. Basically, when you agitate the cream for a long enough period of time, you are helping to separate the fat solids from the “butter milk.” [NOTE: Leaving the cream at room temperature for a while helps the physical transformation along at a quicker rate.] Every one of the scientists saw the full physical change and achieved both the full butter solids and the butter milk! And everyone loved the flavor of their butter on the bread I passed out to all 🙂

DEMONSTRATION #2:  Banana “Ice Cream”

Pages-from-Nom-Nom-Paleo-50-Page-Preview-51-785x1024While my scientists munched away on their bread and butter, this seemed like the perfect time to give them a little something sweet to sample at the end of our snacking. I recently discovered – while browsing through my Nam Nam Paleo cookbook, that you can make the most amazing fake ice cream using frozen bananas as your base.

Ingredients

  • 3 bananas (halved, placed in freezer bags, and frozen overnight)
  • 1 cup of frozen strawberries (you could probably use any frozen fruit here)
  • 1/2 cup of coconut cream (you can find that in most food stores in the aisle where they sell the fixings for adult cocktails)
  • 1 tsp. vanilla extract
  • A nice food processor

I carted my food processor in from home, and then proceeded to demonstrate to my scientists how to put together this recipe. After just a few minutes in the food processor, the ingredients really do have the texture and temperature of a nice soft-serve ice cream without using any milk or cream! The hero in this recipe is the banana. Bananas have high levels of pectins (a type of water-soluble fiber). To be frank, I don’t even understand the full “how does it really work” with this recipe. But there’s something that happens when you freeze the bananas and break up that fiber in the food processor that makes for fake ice cream magic (yum!). I had the scientists line up, and I gave them all a sample in a mini cup (like the ones we used to make butter). All of my scientists loved this recipe so much they came back for seconds…and all of the moms present seemed very interested in jotting down the recipe 🙂

ART/SCIENCE PROJECT:  Tattooing Bananas

Materials:

  • 1 banana per scientist
  • Fun images for the scientists to use as templates
  • Scotch tape
  • Push pins or toothpicks (I found that push pins worked easiest, but I know some folks would prefer toothpicks if they plan on eating the bananas later)

Olaf_from_Disney's_Frozen 254-batman-logoenhancedThis banana project was literally the starting point for this entire ‘fun with food’ program. I was DYING to try this out with some of my regulars at the library. So easy, and such a quick reward for your efforts. This one did take a little pre-work on my end, though. I selected some fun images that I thought the scientists would have fun working with: Beeker, a Minion, Olaf, a Lego Ninjago, the Batman symbol, etc. I then measured my typical banana and created a rough outline in a blank PowerPoint document (about 2 inches by 7 inches) and then sized the images to be approximately that size. [I wanted to ensure that the images I passed out to the scientists would roughly fit along one side of their bananas, and wouldn’t be too large or too small.]

After distributing the bananas, I instructed the scientists to cut out the image of their choice. No need for precision here – you want there to be a wide border around the image itself. I then had them tape the image in place on their banana. And then it’s just a question of a little time and patience. You use the push pin to punch holes around the ouline/lines of the image (like tracing the image with a series of dots). When you think you’ve put holes in all of the major lines, you can remove the paper and then just fill in some of the lines with more dots to make for more solid lines (think of it like connecting-the-dots).

Minion Banana

Minion Banana

LEGO Ninjago Banana

LEGO Ninjago Banana

Almost instantly, the dots create a brown discoloration on the surface of the banana. This happens because of oxidation. Bananas contain polyphenol oxidase and other iron-containing chemicals which react with the oxygen in the air when the cells are cut open (similar to what happens when rust forms on a piece of metal). We had some pretty terrific art come out of this science demonstration/project, and as a bonus, the scientists could take the bananas home and eat them later! The push pins actually don’t push very far beyond the skin of the banana, so 1) the bananas stay fresh for a while, and 2) the artwork on the skin remains just as lovely a day two after you complete it.

CONCLUSION

As you can see, we had a lot on our ‘plates’ for this first program (ha ha), but it was tons of fun for all! Who doesn’t love playing with their food, right?… 🙂

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Program 33: Tastes Like Butter (Got Milk Revisited)

Milk…yum!  Butter…even better!

The past couple of weeks my G3 crew and I revisited a really fun program that lets us play with some basic ingredients from the food store. And, as a bonus, I added a yummy component to the day’s activities – making our own butter!

EXPERIMENT #1:  Let’s Make Butter!

Materials

  • Heavy whipping cream (room temperature – out of the fridge for 6-8 hours)
  • Small jars with secure lids (I used recycled 4 oz. baby food jars, one for each scientist)
  • A little salt for flavoring
  • Bread, for snacking

I recently stumbled across a youtube video where a man was making his own butter with his own two hands in a very simple process. So simple, in fact, that I was amazed I had never heard of the process before. And interestingly, none of my G3 scientists had ever done this experiment either! So, I told my crew that our first challenge for the day was for each of us to make our own butter…so we could have a tasty after-school snack!

I passed out the jars, which had about 1/4 to 1/2 inch of heavy cream in the bottom. [This small amount of cream produces plenty of butter for each individual scientist, approximately 1-2 servings.] I instructed my scientists to add a pinch of salt for flavoring (most of us eat salted butter at the dinner table). We sealed the jars tight, and then it was just a question of some time and arm muscle. You need to shake the cream in the jar for about 10-15 minutes to instigate the physical change in the cream. Basically, when you agitate the cream for a long enough period of time, you are helping to separate the fat solids from the “butter milk.” [NOTE: Leaving the cream at room temperature for a while helps the physical transformation along at a quicker rate.] Our group actually did not get to the stage where the solid fat and butter milk truly separate – our results were more of a whipped butter quality. However, that did nothing to impact the taste! I passed out some bread so that every scientist could taste their own butter creations. All agreed that it was very yummy 🙂

The second part of our program was all about MILK.

Milk is a beverage that most of us drink every single day, but probably not one that we give much thought to. Some of us drink cow’s milk. Others of us (myself included) drink other varieties of milk, like almond milk or rice milk. Because I just can’t help myself when it comes to sharing ‘fun facts,’ here’s a highlight of some information I shared with the group at the start of our program:

  1. The habit of drinking milk actually became popular over 10,000 years ago when animals were first domesticated in Afghanistan and Iran. Domestic cows – where we get most of our milk – didn’t even arrive in North America until the 1600’s!
  2. Cows produce 90% of the world’s milk needs, and an average cow can produce the equivalent of about 90 glasses of milk a day (or 200,000 glasses during its lifetime).
  3. But Cows aren’t the only animals that produce the milk and dairy products that humans consume. You can add to that list goats, sheep, apes, yaks, water buffalo, reindeer, and horses!
  4. Why do our dentists say that milk is good for our teeth? Milk and dairy products actually reduce the amount of acidity in our mouths, curb plaque formation, and even reduce the risk of cavities.

As scientists, though, we want to know what exactly milk is…so we can figure out some fun ways to experiment with it. Think of milk as a solution of mostly water that also contains vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fat “droplets.” The proteins and fats actually float around freely in the solution. The gotmilk website actually has some very fun online games that show you just how difficult it is to create a substitute beverage for milk.

Our mission for the ‘got milk’ experiments was a simple one:  What happens when you add food color drops to milk, and then introduce a drop of regular dish washing soap?

 

EXPERIMENT #2:  Colorful Milk

Materials:

  • Milk (I only used whole milk this time around, but when we did this experiment in the past I had our scientists test various kinds of milk – including skim, 1% and 2%)
  • Liquid food coloring (NOT the gel food coloring that is popular in stores today – I actually discovered the liquid food colors shelved with the spices at the food store)
  • Plastic or coated plates (the first time around we used coated paper plates, but over time even they get rather droopy, so this time we used plastic plates)
  • Q-tips
  • Liquid dish soap (any variety – I used Dawn brand soap)
  • Small Dixie or bathroom cups to put the soap in
  • Paper towels for any mess

We poured just enough milk into our plates to completely cover the bottom of the plate. Each scientist determined which colors to add to the milk solution. Only 1 or 2 drops of food coloring per color is necessary, but some of our scientists wanted to add more in specific patterns throughout their plates of milk. Once the drops of food coloring were in place, we dipped a standard q-tip into the Dawn soap, and then slowly lowered it into the center of the plate of milk (you don’t have to put the q-tip into the color drops themselves). What were the results?

The results were both instantaneous and VERY COOL. With just a single drop of dish soap, the colors instantly begin to swirl around the milk in crazy patterns. But why does this happen? Well, remember from our description of the milk solution that the fat droplets are actually floating around in the main solution of the milk. The dish soap molecules are designed to instantly want to attach themselves to fat molecules. [That’s why dish soap does such a good job of cleaning up greasy pots and pans!] As the soap molecules race around the solution trying to attach to the floating fat droplets, the food coloring molecules are frantically pushed around the plate. Hence, the crazy swirling of colors that the G3 scientists witnessed!

What would happen if you tested this with other liquids/beverages? This is a simple experiment that can be done at home. Just be careful with the food coloring since it will stain just about any material. You can also read more about this experiment by looking at the “Color Changing Milk” experiment on Steve Spangler’s web site.

 

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